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Authors: Nielsen DV, Torp-Pedersen C, Skals RK, Gerds TA, Karaliunaite Z, Jakobsen CJ.

Reference: Crit Care. 2018 Feb 26;22(1):51. doi: 10.1186/s13054-018-1969-1

Abstract
BACKGROUND:
Several choices of inotropic therapy are available and used in relation to cardiac surgery. Comparisons are necessary to select optimal therapy. In Denmark, dobutamine and milrinone are the two inotropic agents most commonly used to treat post-bypass low cardiac output syndrome. This study compares all-cause mortality with these drugs.

METHODS:
In a retrospective observational study we investigated 10,700 consecutive patients undergoing cardiac surgery from 1 April 2006 to 31 December 2013 at Aarhus and Aalborg University Hospitals in the Central and Northern Denmark Region. Prospectively entered data in the Western Danish Heart Registry on intraoperative use of inotropes were used to identify 952 patients treated with milrinone, 418 patients treated with dobutamine, and 82 patients receiving a combination of the two inotropes. All-cause mortality among patients receiving dobutamine was compared to all-cause mortality among milrinone receivers. Multiple logistic regression analyses including preoperative and intraoperative variables along with g-formula analyses were used to model 30-day and 1-year mortality risks. Reported were standardized mortality risk differences between the treatment groups.

RESULTS:
Among patients receiving intraoperative dobutamine, 18 (4.3%) died within 30 days and 49 (11.7%) within 1 year. Corresponding 30-day and 1-year mortality for milrinone receivers were 81 (8.5%) and 170 (17.9%). Risk of death within 30 days and 1 year was increased for intraoperative milrinone compared to dobutamine with a standardized risk difference of 4.06% (confidence interval (CI) 1.23; 6.89, p = 0.005) and 4.77% (CI 0.39; 9.15, p = 0.033), respectively. Sensitivity analyses including adjustment for milrinone preference, hemodynamic instability prior to cardiopulmonary bypass, and separate analyses on hospital level all confirmed a sign toward increased mortality among milrinone receivers.

CONCLUSIONS:
Intraoperative use of milrinone in cardiac surgery may be associated with an increase in all-cause mortality compared to use of dobutamine.

KEYWORDS:
Cardiac surgery; Dobutamine; Intraoperative; Milrinone; Mortality; Retrospective cohort study; Standardized mortality risk; g-formula

Authors: C. David Mazer, M.D., Richard P. Whitlock, M.D., Ph.D., Dean A. Fergusson, Ph.D., M.H.A., Judith Hall, M.Sc., Emilie Belley-Cote, M.D., Katherine Connolly, M.D., Boris Khanykin, M.D., Alexander J. Gregory, M.D., Étienne de Médicis, M.D., Shay McGuinness, M.B., Ch.B., Alistair Royse, M.B., B.S., M.D., François M. Carrier, M.D., Paul J. Young, F.C.I.C.M., Ph.D., Juan C. Villar, M.D., Ph.D., Hilary P. Grocott, M.D., Manfred D. Seeberger, M.D., Stephen Fremes, M.D., François Lellouche, M.D., Ph.D., Summer Syed, M.D., Kelly Byrne, M.B., Ch.B., Sean M. Bagshaw, M.D., Nian C. Hwang, M.B., B.S., G.D.Acu., Chirag Mehta, M.D., Thomas W. Painter, M.B., Ch.B., Colin Royse, M.B., B.S., M.D., Subodh Verma, M.D., Ph.D., Gregory M.T. Hare, M.D., Ph.D., Ashley Cohen, M.Sc., Kevin E. Thorpe, M.Math., Peter Jüni, M.D., and Nadine Shehata, M.D., for the TRICS Investigators and Perioperative Anesthesia Clinical Trials Group*

Reference: N Engl J Med 2017; 377:2133-2144November 30, 2017DOI: 10.1056/NEJMoa1711818

BACKGROUND
The effect of a restrictive versus liberal red-cell transfusion strategy on clinical outcomes in patients undergoing cardiac surgery remains unclear.
METHODS
In this multicenter, open-label, noninferiority trial, we randomly assigned 5243 adults undergoing cardiac surgery who had a European System for Cardiac Operative Risk Evaluation (EuroSCORE) I of 6 or more (on a scale from 0 to 47, with higher scores indicating a higher risk of death after cardiac surgery) to a restrictive red-cell transfusion threshold (transfuse if hemoglobin level was

Authors: hiele H, Akin I, Sandri M, Fuernau G, de Waha S, Meyer-Saraei R, Nordbeck P, Geisler T, Landmesser U, Skurk C, Fach A, Lapp H, Piek JJ, Noc M, Goslar T, Felix SB, Maier LS, Stepinska J, Oldroyd K, Serpytis P, Montalescot G, Barthelemy O, Huber K, Windecker S, Savonitto S, Torremante P, Vrints C, Schneider S, Desch S, Zeymer U; CULPRIT-SHOCK Investigators.

Reference: N Engl J Med. 2017 Oct 30. doi: 10.1056/NEJMoa1710261

Abstract
Background In patients who have acute myocardial infarction with cardiogenic shock, early revascularization of the culprit artery by means of percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) improves outcomes. However, the majority of patients with cardiogenic shock have multivessel disease, and whether PCI should be performed immediately for stenoses in nonculprit arteries is controversial. Methods In this multicenter trial, we randomly assigned 706 patients who had multivessel disease, acute myocardial infarction, and cardiogenic shock to one of two initial revascularization strategies: either PCI of the culprit lesion only, with the option of staged revascularization of nonculprit lesions, or immediate multivessel PCI. The primary end point was a composite of death or severe renal failure leading to renal-replacement therapy within 30 days after randomization. Safety end points included bleeding and stroke. Results At 30 days, the composite primary end point of death or renal-replacement therapy had occurred in 158 of the 344 patients (45.9%) in the culprit-lesion-only PCI group and in 189 of the 341 patients (55.4%) in the multivessel PCI group (relative risk, 0.83; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.71 to 0.96; P=0.01). The relative risk of death in the culprit-lesion-only PCI group as compared with the multivessel PCI group was 0.84 (95% CI, 0.72 to 0.98; P=0.03), and the relative risk of renal-replacement therapy was 0.71 (95% CI, 0.49 to 1.03; P=0.07). The time to hemodynamic stabilization, the risk of catecholamine therapy and the duration of such therapy, the levels of troponin T and creatine kinase, and the rates of bleeding and stroke did not differ significantly between the two groups. Conclusions Among patients who had multivessel coronary artery disease and acute myocardial infarction with cardiogenic shock, the 30-day risk of a composite of death or severe renal failure leading to renal-replacement therapy was lower among those who initially underwent PCI of the culprit lesion only than among those who underwent immediate multivessel PCI. (Funded by the European Union 7th Framework Program and others; CULPRIT-SHOCK ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT01927549 .).

Authors: Bignami E, Cattaneo M, Crescenzi G, Ranucci M, Guarracino F, Cariello C, Baldassarri R, Isgrò G, Baryshnikova E, Fano G, Franco A, Gerli C, Crivellari M, Zangrillo A, Landoni G.

Reference: Acta Anaesthesiol Scand. 2016 Aug;60(7):892-900. doi: 10.1111/aas.12740. Epub 2016 Apr 27.

Abstract
BACKGROUND:
Previous studies showed that desmopressin decreases post-operative blood loss in patients undergoing cardiac surgery. These studies were small and never studied the effect of desmopressin in patients with active bleeding. Objective of the study was to determine whether desmopressin reduces red blood cells transfusion requirements in patients with active bleeding after cardiac surgery who had been pre-treated with tranexamic acid.
METHODS:
This multicenter, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel-group study randomized elective patients with bleeding after cardiac surgery despite pre-treatment with tranexamic acid, to receive placebo (saline solution) or a single administration of desmopressin (0.3 μg/kg in saline solution). The primary endpoint was the number of patients requiring red blood cells transfusion after randomization and during hospital stay. Secondary end points were: blood loss from chest tubes during the first 24 h after study drug administration, hours of mechanical ventilation, intensive care unit stay, and in-hospital mortality.
RESULTS:
The study was interrupted after inclusion of 67% of the planned patients for futility. The number of patients requiring red blood cells transfusion after randomization was 37/68 (54%) in desmopressin group and 33/67 (49%) in placebo group (P = 0.34) with no difference in blood loss: 575 (interquartile 422-770) ml in desmopressin group and 590 (476-1013) ml in placebo group (P = 0.42), mechanical ventilation, intensive care unit stay or mortality.
CONCLUSIONS:
This multicenter randomized trial demonstrated that, in patients pre-treated with tranexamic acid, desmopressin should not be expected to improve treatment of patients who experience bleeding after cardiac surgery.

Authors: omberg H, Groesdonk HV, Raffel M, Minko P, Schmied W, Klingele M, Schäfers HJ.

Reference: Ann Thorac Surg. 2016 Sep;102(3):813-819. doi: 10.1016/j.athoracsur.2016.03.025. Epub 2016 May 10.

Abstract
BACKGROUND:
Vasopressin is used as an adjunct to norepinephrine to support blood pressure in vasodilatory shock after cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB). In this study, we report our observation of vasopressin treatment in 11 patients with nonocclusive mesenteric ischemia (NOMI).
METHODS:
In an observational cohort study, 78 patients were studied after having been treated for NOMI with intraarterial iloprost infusion after elective cardiac operation. All patients received norepinephrine as vasopressor for marked vasodilation. In 11 patients mean arterial pressure could not be maintained with norepinephrine alone (≤0.4 μg · kg(-1) · min(-1)), and vasopressin was given in addition to norepinephrine as a rescue therapy. The 11 patients (Vaso) and the remaining 67 patients (Nor) were analyzed for clinical improvement after initiation of NOMI treatment, on the following days 1 and 2, and for hospital survival. Intestinal perfusion was controlled by mesenteric angiography.
RESULTS:
Before initiation of NOMI treatment Vaso patients had significantly higher doses of norepinephrine than the Nor patients (Vaso, 0.65 ± 0.20 μg · kg(-1) · min(-1); Nor, 0.20 ± 0.13 μg · kg(-1) · min(-1); p < 0.001), and their diagnostic score of the angiography was higher (Vaso, 5.4 ± 1.1 points; Nor, 3.5 ± 2.1 points; p = 0.004). After 2 days of NOMI treatment, Vaso patients had improved intestinal perfusion in the control angiography (Vaso, 3.8 ± 1.5 points) and significantly lower doses of norepinephrine than the Nor patients (Vaso, 0.28 ± 0.12 μg · kg(-1) · min(-1); Nor, 0.53 ± 0.34 μg · kg(-1) · min(-1); p = 0.002). All patients survived in the Vaso group; in the Nor group, 17 of 67 patients died in the hospital. CONCLUSIONS: Vasopressin administration during NOMI treatment after CPB seems to improve small intestine perfusion and appears be to associated with improved hospital survival.

Authors: van Diepen S, Katz JN, Albert NM, Henry TD, Jacobs AK, Kapur NK, Kilic A, Menon V, Ohman EM, Sweitzer NK, Thiele H, Washam JB, Cohen MG; American Heart Association Council on Clinical Cardiology; Council on Cardiovascular and Stroke Nursing; Council on Quality of Care and Outcomes Research; and Mission: Lifeline.

Reference: Circulation. 2017 Sep 18. pii

Abstract
Cardiogenic shock is a high-acuity, potentially complex, and hemodynamically diverse state of end-organ hypoperfusion that is frequently associated with multisystem organ failure. Despite improving survival in recent years, patient morbidity and mortality remain high, and there are few evidence-based therapeutic interventions known to clearly improve patient outcomes. This scientific statement on cardiogenic shock summarizes the epidemiology, pathophysiology, causes, and outcomes of cardiogenic shock; reviews contemporary best medical, surgical, mechanical circulatory support, and palliative care practices; advocates for the development of regionalized systems of care; and outlines future research priorities.

Authors: Subramaniam K, DeAndrade DS, Mandell DR, Althouse AD, Manmohan R, Esper SA, Varga JM, Badhwar V.

Reference: J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg. 2017 Jun 13. pii: S0022-5223(17)31193-5.

Abstract
OBJECTIVE:
The primary objective of the study was to identify perioperative factors associated with successful immediate extubation in the operating room after adult cardiac surgery. The secondary objective was to derive a simplified predictive scoring system to guide clinicians in operating room extubation.
METHODS:
All 1518 patients in this retrospective cohort study underwent standardized fast-track cardiac anesthetic protocol during adult cardiac surgery. Perioperative variables between patients who had successful extubation in the operating room versus in the intensive care unit were retrospectively analyzed using both univariate and multivariable logistic regression analyses. A predictive score of successful operating room extubation was constructed from the multivariable results of 800 patients (derivation set), and the scoring system was further tested using a validation set of 398 patients.
RESULTS:
Younger age, lower body mass index, higher preoperative serum albumin, absence of chronic lung disease and diabetes, less-invasive surgical approach, isolated coronary bypass surgery, elective surgery, and lower doses of intraoperative intravenous fentanyl were independently associated with higher probability of operating room extubation. The extubation prediction score created in a derivation set of patients performed well in the validation set. Patient scores less than 0 had a minimal probability of successful operating room extubation. Operating room extubation was highly predicted with scores of 5 or greater.
CONCLUSIONS:
Perioperative factors that are independently associated with successful operating room extubation after adult cardiac operations were identified, and an operating room extubation prediction scoring system was validated. This scoring system may be used to guide safe operating room extubation after cardiac operations.

THURSDAY, Aug. 10, 2017 (HealthDay News) — Obese heart surgery patients spend more time in intensive care and take longer to recover than those who aren’t obese, a new Canadian study finds.

Researchers examined data from nearly 5,400 patients who had heart surgery at the New Brunswick Heart Center between January 2006 and December 2013. Of those, 36 percent were obese.

After heart surgery, obese patients were four times more likely to need extra time in the ICU; three times more likely to need extra time on mechanical ventilation; and three times more likely to be readmitted to the ICU, the study showed. More…

Authors: Schober A, Sterz F, Herkner H, Wallmueller C, Weiser C, Hubner P, Testori C.

Reference: Emerg Med J. 2017 May;34(5):277-281.

Abstract
BACKGROUND:
In refractory cardiac arrest, with cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) for more than 30 min, chances of survival are small. Extracorporeal cardiopulmonary resuscitation (ECPR) is an option for certain patients with cardiac arrest. The aim of this study was to evaluate characteristics of patients selected for ECPR.
METHODS:
Anonymised data of adult patients suffering refractory cardiac arrest, transported with ongoing CPR to an ED of a tertiary care centre between 2002 and 2012 were analysed. Outcome measure was the selection for ECPR. Secondary outcome was 180 days survival in good neurological condition.
RESULTS:
Overall, 239 patients fulfilled the inclusion criteria. ECPR was initiated in seven patients. Patients treated with ECPR were younger (46 vs 60 years; p=0.04), had shorter intervals before CPR was started (0 vs 1 min; p=0.013), faster admissions at the ED (38 vs 56 min; p=0.31) and lower blood glucose levels on admission (14 vs 21 mmol/L; p=0.018). Survival to discharge in good neurological condition was achieved in 14 (6%) of all patients. One patient in the ECPR group survived in excellent neurological condition. Age was independently associated with the selection for ECPR (OR 0.07; 95% CI 0.01 to 0.85; p=0.037).
CONCLUSIONS:
Emergency extracorporeal life support was used for a highly selected group of patients in refractory cardiac arrest. Several parameters were associated with the decision, but only age was independently associated with the selection for ECPR. The patient selection resulting in a survival of one patient out of seven treated seems reasonable. Randomised controlled trials evaluating the age limit as selection criteria are urgently needed to confirm these findings.
© Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.
KEYWORDS:
Cardiac arrest; ECLS; ECPR; Extracorporeal life support; Resuscitation; Ventricular fibrillation

Authors: Dzierba AL, Abrams D, Brodie D

Reference: Crit Care. 2017 Mar 21;21(1):66

Abstract
This article is one of ten reviews selected from the Annual Update in Intensive Care and Emergency Medicine 2017. Other selected articles can be found online at http://ccforum.com/series/annualupdate2017 . Further information about the Annual Update in Intensive Care and Emergency Medicine is available from http://www.springer.com/series/8901 .